The country’s principal language is Kinyarwanda, which is spoken by most Rwandans. The major European languages during the colonial era were German, and then French, which was introduced by Belgium and remained an official and widely spoken language after independence. The influx of former refugees from Uganda and elsewhere during the late 20th century has created a linguistic divide between the English-speaking population and the French-speaking remainder of the country. Kinyarwanda, English, and French are all official languages. Kinyarwanda is the language of government and English is the primary educational medium. Swahili, the lingua franca of the East African Community, is also spoken by some as a second language, particularly returned refugees from Kenya and Tanzania. In 2015, Swahili was introduced as a mandatory subject in secondary schools. Inhabitants of Rwanda’s Nkombo Island speak Amashi, a language closely related to Kinyarwanda.