The Ministry of Health (MOH) provides information pertaining to Zambian health. In 2014, public expenditure on health was 2.8% of GDP, among the lowest in southern Africa. The 2014 CIA estimated average life expectancy in Zambia was 51.83 years. UNESCO estimated it to be 61.8 years in 2015.
Zambia faces a generalised HIV epidemic, with an estimated prevalence rate of 12.3% among adults (ages 15–49) in 2015–2016. HIV incidence in Zambia has declined by more than 25% from 2001 to 2010, an indication that the epidemic appears to be declining.
In Zambia, there are hospitals throughout the country which include: Levy Mwanawasa General Hospital, Chipata General Hospital, Kitwe Central Hospital, Konkola Mine Hospital, Lubwe Mission Hospital, Maacha Hospital, Mtendere Mission Hospital, Mukinge Mission Hospital, Mwandi Mission Hospital, Nchanga North Hospital, Chikankata Salvation Army Hospital, Kalene Mission Hospital, St Francis Hospital, and St Luke’s Mission Hospital.
The University Teaching Hospital serves as both a hospital and a training site for future health workers. There are very few hospitals in rural or remote places in Zambia, where most communities rely on small government-run community health centres and rural health posts.
Maternal and child health care
The 2010 maternal mortality rate per 100,000 births for Zambia is 470. This is compared with 602.9 in 2008 and 594.2 in 1990. The under-5 mortality rate, per 1,000 births is 145 and the neonatal mortality as a percentage of under 5’s mortality is 25.
In Zambia the number of midwives per 1,000 live births is 5 and the lifetime risk of death for pregnant women is 1 in 38. Female genital mutilation (FGM), while not widespread, is practiced in parts of the country. According to the 2009 Zambia Sexual Behaviour Survey, 0.7% of women have undergone FGM. According to UNICEF, 45% of children under five years are stunted.
The federal government has made attempts to address women’s health concerns and provide policies that give women greater opportunities in political life in the 2010s. A 2017 law established “Mother’s Day” which allows every Zambian one day off from work per month to ease menstrual pain.