The fertility rate of Ghana declined from 3.99 (2000) to 3.28 (2010) with 2.78 in urban region and 3.94 in rural region.
As of 2010, the maternal mortality rate was 350 deaths/100,000 live births, and the infant mortality rate was 38.52 deaths/1,000 live births.
According to a 2013 UNICEF report, 4% of women in Ghana have undergone female genital mutilation. The practice has been made illegal in the country. Ghana is also the birth country of anti-FGM campaigner Efua Dorkenoo.
NHIS and Health in Ghana
Ghana has a universal health care system strictly designated for Ghanaian nationals, National Health Insurance Scheme.
Health care is very variable throughout Ghana and in 2012 over 12 million Ghanaian nationals were covered by the National Health Insurance Scheme.
Urban centres are well served, and contain most of the hospitals, clinics, and pharmacies in Ghana. There are over 200 hospitals in Ghana and Ghana is a destination for medical tourism.
In 2013, life expectancy at birth had increased to an average of 66 years with males at 66 years and females at 67 years and in 2013 infant mortality decreased to 39 per 1,000 live births.
There was an estimation of 15 physicians and 93 nurses per 100,000 persons in 2010. 5.2% of Ghana’s GDP was spent on health in 2010 and all Ghanaian citizens have the right to access primary health care.
As of 2012, the HIV/AIDS prevalence was estimated at 1.40% among adults aged 15–49.