Cameroon has a high level of religious freedom and diversity. The predominant faith is Christianity, practised by about two-thirds of the population, while Islam is a significant minority faith, adhered to by about one-fifth.
In addition, traditional faiths are practised by many. Muslims are most concentrated in the north, while Christians are concentrated primarily in the southern and western regions, but practitioners of both faiths can be found throughout the country.
Large cities have significant populations of both groups. Muslims in Cameroon are divided into Sufis (and Salafis), Shias, and non-denominational Muslims.
People from the North-West and South-West provinces, which used to be a part of British Cameroons, are largely Protestant. The French-speaking regions of the southern and western regions are largely Catholic.
Southern ethnic groups predominantly follow Christian or traditional African animist beliefs, or a syncretic combination of the two. People widely believe in witchcraft, and the government outlaws such practices. Suspected witches are often subject to mob violence.
The Islamist jihadist group Ansar al Islam has been reported as operating in North Cameroon.
In the northern regions, the locally dominant Fulani ethnic group is mostly Muslim, but the overall population is fairly evenly divided among Muslims, Christians, and followers of indigenous religious beliefs (called Kirdi (“pagan”) by the Fulani).
The Bamum ethnic group of the West Region is largely Muslim. Native traditional religions are practised in rural areas throughout the country but rarely are practised publicly in cities, in part because many indigenous religious groups are intrinsically local in character.